October 26, 1999
1. India and the United States of America, the two largest democracies in the world and endowed with abundant natural, scientific and skilled human resources, have a long history of mutually beneficial cooperation in the fields of science and technology, industry and trade, health and environment and culture and education. The two countries, recognizing the immense promise for advancing their social and economic goals through cooperation in the energy sector, have decided to intensify their cooperation in this area.
2.The two countries recall past cooperation that established the framework for several joint initiatives between the two Governments and their agencies for research and development in the energy sector, as well as stimulated private cooperation in conventional energy projects in India.
3. The two government, noting the progress made in these collaborative projects, and recognizing the immense opportunities for fruitful cooperation in the energy sector, have decided to further enhance their cooperation in the energy sector, such as conventional energy projects, renewable energy, clean coal technology, energy efficiency and related environmental aspects.
4.They also recognize that future development of energy sector must take into account the growing demand for energy, the importance of judicious utilization of limited resources of the planet in the most efficient and equitable manner and the need to protect our environment.
5. India, which was the first country to establish a full-fledged Ministry for Non-conventional Energy Sources, is working to make renewable energy sources a viable and significant part of India's energy supply. India is one of the largest users of wind energy and solar energy in the world and has also made impressive advances in generating energy from wastes. In the field of conventional energy, India is increasingly making fossil fuel energy clean and more efficient.
6.The United States is taking several major initiatives to meet its energy requirements in an increasingly climate friendly manner. For example, the US Government has set a goal of tripling US use of bio-energy and bio-projects by 2010, which may reduce greenhouse gas emission by 100 million metric tones of carbon. The US Government has ordered every federal agency to reduce green house gas emissions from buildings by 30% by 2010 from 1990 levels. The US Government continues to invest billions of dollar in clean energy and energy efficient technologies and is working with American industry and communities to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and move to cleaner and healthier energy sources.
7.The two Governments, in the spirit that characterizes their own initiatives to mitigate the impact of energy production on environment and climate, accord high importance to these aspects in their bilateral energy cooperation.
8. They also resolve to work closely together and with other countries, in keeping with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, to advance the goal of protecting the people of the world from the threat of climate change, while promoting economic growth.
9. As the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases, the United States recognizes its responsibilities to help lead international efforts to address the challenges of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol sets forth a binding emissions target for the United States, which would result in a reduction of roughly 30% from the projected levels in 2008-2012.
10.The Government of India recognizes the need for voluntary "no- regrets measures" at the national level, which will have the additional benefits of dealing with air and water pollution, urban transportation and other important sectors of the domestic economy.
11. The two Governments agree to cooperate and to work together in appropriate forums for advancing the goals of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, in accordance with the decisions of the Conference of the Parties to the UN in its various sessions.
12. The Governments of India and the United States agree to co-operate within the framework of the Conference of Parties and its subsidiary bodies of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, to work towards early agreement on the elements of the Kyoto Mechanisms.
13. In particular, the Governments of India and the United States agree that the Kyoto Mechanisms could offer the opportunity to achieve mutually beneficial partnerships between industrialized and developing nations. The government of India and the United States resolve to work closely together with other countries to develop a great international rules and procedures for the Kyoto Mechanisms, including the Clean Development Mechanism.
14. The Governments of India and the United States, guided by the objective of using the immense opportunities and their vast pool of resources and skills for fruitful cooperation in the Energy sector, in both bilateral and international context, resolve to take appropriate measures to foster private sector energy ventures, cooperation in research and development, and greater utilization of environment enhancing and climate friendly energy sources and technology for balanced and sustainable economic development.